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MOAPPP Mini-Calendar

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Moappp Events

February 10, 2005
Girl Culture Gallery Event for Friends of MOAPPP

February 10 & 17
Working with GLBTQ Youth: Self-Reflection and Action

February 14, 2005 (CANCELLED!)
Sexuality Education for Life-MN Coalition Day at the Capitol

February 24, 2005
Lauren Greenfield Girl Culture Lecture/Book Signing

May 5-6, 2005
MOAPPP Annual Conference

Other Events

January 15 - March 27, 2005
Girl Culture photography exhibition by Lauren Greenfield

February 4, 2005
Drug Training/Update

February 8, 15, 24 and March 1, 2005
The TALK: An Intercourse on Coming of Age

February 21, 2005
Girls Rock! The Capitol 2005

March 25, 2005
¡Soy Unica! ¡Soy Latina!

April 11-12, 2005
2005 MN Conference on Adolescent Females

High-Risk Factors and Adolescent Sexual Health

Some studies suggest that teen pregnancy is not an isolated phenomenon, but one of several consequences that may result from a combination of factors. Such factors may contribute to teens high-risk behaviors, including substance abuse, early and unprotected sex, and involvement in crime and violence. These behaviors may also be correlated with each other. For instance, teens who engage in sexual activity at a young age are more likely to have used chemicals at about the same age. Also, victims of sexual abuse tend to engage in premature sexual activity and have a greater chance of becoming involved in a pregnancy as a teen. In addition, adolescents who engage in or experience crime and violence in their lives are also at risk for substance abuse and early, unsafe sexual activity.

Connections like these are often overlooked in efforts to prevent teen pregnancy. A deeper examination of the external influences on adolescents who become involved in a pregnancy is required in order to fully comprehend and effectively respond to the complexity of teen pregnancy.

The Minnesota Organization on Adolescent Pregnancy, Prevention, and Parenting (MOAPPP) developed this series of fact sheets to draw the links between adolescent pregnancy and and other social issues that are relevant to the lives of Minnesota teens. These fact sheets are based on published research articles, government reports, and data available from state agencies. Data are national, and where noted, specific to Minnesota. References are listed at the end of this document.

Substance Use and Abuse
The use of alcohol and illicit drugs has been proposed in some studies as a contributing factor to sexual risk-taking, whereby substance use impairs individual judgement and decision-making and increases a teens risk for an unintended pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (Ozer 1997). Other studies caution that both behaviors could be caused by a possible third factor, including an acceptance of deviant behaviors, a predisposition to risk-taking and sensation-seeking, mental health problems, and developmental factors (Halpern-Felsher 1996).

Sexual Violence
Another key factor in adolescent high-risk sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy is sexual victimization. Studies suggest that victims of childhood sexual abuse may be at increased risk for a pregnancy during adolescence (Stevens-Simon 1994). Namely, the negative effects of sexual abuse, including premature and exaggerated sexual interest and vulnerability to subsequent sexual exploitation, may futher contribute to the risk of a teen pregnancy (Moore 1995). Crime and Violence
Over the last 65 years, crime and violence have become the leading causes of death for adolescents (Ozer 1997). While adolescent crime has increased in recent years, it is equally important to note that adolescents are also the most likely victims of crime (MDH 1996). In addition, children of teen parents have been found to be at increased risk of conducting juvenile offenses as well as experiencing violence and abuse themselves. By examining crime and violence perpetrated by adolescents and in adolescent life, research has also correlated such factors with an adolescents involvement in risky sexual behavior or in a pregnancy.

Implications for programs and practioners
To effectively respond to the complexity of teen pregnancy and serve the needs of sexually active, pregnant or parenting teens, programs and practioners must also address how substance abuse, sexual violence, and involvement in crime and violence are interrelated with early and unprotected sex. Since an adolescent who engages in one kind of high-risk behavior is likely to be involved in another, pregnancy prevention and parenting programs must be prepared to work with individual teens who may need support for multiple issues.

MOAPPP can help by providing the resources that you need to help Minnesota teens. Contact the MOAPPP InfoExchange at (612) 644-1447 or toll-free in Minnesota at (800) 657-3697.


The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1994. Sex and Americas Teenagers. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.

Boyer, D. and D. Fine. 1992. "Sexual Abuse as a Factor in Adolescent Pregnancy and Child Maltreatment." Family Planning Perspectives, 24(1):4-11, 19.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

The Commonwealth Fund. 1997. The Commonwealth Fund Survey of the Health of Adolescent Girls. New York: The Commonwealth Fund.

Consuer A., F.P. Rivara, R. Barnoski, and I. Emanuel. 1997. "Maternal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Later Delinquency" Pediatrics. 99(6): 785-790.

Cooper, M.L., R.S. Peirce, and R.F. Huselid. 1994. "Substance use and sexual risk-taking among black adolescents and white adolescents." Health Psychology. 13(3): 251-262.

Covington, D.L., V.K. Dalton, S.J. Diehl, B.D. Wright, and M.H. Piner. 1997. "Improving Detection of Violence Among Pregnant Adolescents," Journal of Adolescent Health, (21):18-24

Gilchrist, L.D., J.M. Hussey, M.R. Gillmore, M. J. Lohr, and D. M. Morrison. 1996. "Drug use among adolescent mothers: prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum." Journal of Adolescent Health. 19(5):337-44.

Halpern-Felsher, B.L., S.G. Millstein, and J.M. Ellen. 1996. "Relationship of Alcohol Use and Risky Sexual Behavior: A Review and Analysis of Findings," Journal of Adolescent Health, (19):331-336.

Holmes, M.M., H.S. Resnick, D.G. Kilpatrick, and C.L Best. 1996. "Rape-related pregnancy: estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynocology. 175(2):320-4; discussion 324-5.

Koniak-Griffin D., and Lesser J. 1996. "The impact of childhood maltreatment on young mothers violent behavior toward themselves and others." Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 11(5):300-8.

Lowry, R., D. Holtzman, B.I. Truman, L. Kann, J.L. Collins, and L.J. Kolbe. 1994. Substance Use and HIV Related Sexual Behaviors Among U.S. High School Students: Are They Related?" American Journal of Public Health. 84(7): 1116-1120.

Maynard, R.A . (ed.) 1996. Kids Having Kids: A Robin Hood Foundation Special Report on the Costs of Adolescent Childbearing. New York: Robin Hood Foundation.

Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning, Office of Community Collaboration. 1989-1992-1995. Minnesota Student Survey: Perspectives on Youth.

Minnesota Department of Health, Division of Family Health. 1996. Adolescent Health in Minnesota.

Minnesota Department of Human Services, Performance Measurement/Quality Improvement and Chemcical Dependency Divisions. 1995. Minnesota Student Survey: Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

Moore, K.A., B.C. Miller, D. Glei, and D.R. Morrison. 1995. Adolescent Sex, Contraception, and Childbearing: A Review of Recent Research. Washington, DC: Child Trends, Inc.

Moore, K.A., A.K. Driscoll, and L.D. Lindberg. 1998. A Statistical Portrait of Adolescent Sex, Contraception, and Childbearing. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

National Center for Health Statistics. 1995. National Survey of Family Growth.

Orpinas, P.K., K. Basen-Engquist, and J.A. Grunbaum. 1995. "The co-morbidity of violence-related behaviors with health-risk behaviors in a population of high school students." Journal of Adolescent Health. 16(3): 216-25

Ozer, E.M, C.D. Brindis, S.G. Millstein, D.K. Knopf, C.E. Irwin. 1997. Americas Adolescents: Are They Healthy? School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco.

Parker, B., J. MacFarlane, and K. Soeken. 1994. "Abuse during pregnancy: Effects on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and teenage women." Obstetrics and Gynecology. 84(3):323-8.

Spingarn, R.W., and R.H. DuRant. 1996. "Male adolescents involved in pregnancy: associated health risk and problem behaviors." Pediatrics. 98(2 pt 1):262-8.

Stevens-Simon, C., and S. Reichert. 1994. "Sexual abuse, adolescent pregnancy and child abuse. A developmental approach to an intergenerational cycle." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 148(1):23-7.

Stock, J.L., M.A. Bell, D.K. Boyer, and F.A. Connell. 1997. "Adolescent pregnancy and sexual risk-taking among sexually abused girls." Family Planning Perspectives, 29(5):200-3, 227

Compiled by Emari Dimagiba (April 1998)